They studied the genetic makeup as well as responses to these diets. The answer, in both cases, was no.
"I think one place we go wrong is telling people to figure out how many calories they eat and then telling them to cut back on 500 calories, which makes them miserable", he said.
Previous research suggested that insulin levels or certain genes could interact with different types of diet to influence weight loss.
Both groups, between ages 18 and 50, had to follow their new diet plan for a year.
"In the HLF vs HLC diets, respectively, the mean 12-month macronutrient distributions were 48% vs 30% for carbohydrates, 29% vs 45% for fat, and 21% vs 23% for protein". HDL cholesterol or good cholesterol was raised in the HLC diet group only.
For the study, the genotype of participants was analysed.
Insulin is a hormone which regulates the amount of glucose in the blood.
During the study, participants were asked to limit their carbohydrate and fat intake to 20 grams.
At the end of the 12 months, those on a low-fat diet reported a daily average fat intake of 57 grams; those on low-carb ingested about 132 grams of carbohydrates per day.
Of course, many dieters regain what they lose, and this study can not establish whether participants will be able to sustain their new habits.
What's key, Gardner said, was emphasizing that these were healthy low-fat and low-carb diets - a soda might be low-fat, but it's certainly not healthy. On average, the members of the low-carb group lost just over 13 pounds, while those in the low-fat group lost about 11.7 pounds. Researchers also wanted participants to eat as much food as they wanted so they didn't feel hungry.
When people normally follow low-fat or low-carb diets, they usually keep track of calories. One day, that may mean your DNA can tell you whether you're more or less likely to do well on a diet that emphasises less fat or fewer carbs, for example.
Healthy diet promotes weight loss instead of the genetics of a person, according to the recent study conducted in the United States.
The study was published Tuesday in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
"This study closes the door on some questions - but it opens the door to others". Those services, though, are often bogus, extrapolating, say, from a study of just 68 non-smoking men that drinking 750ml of cloudy apple juice a day will aid in fat loss. Gardner and his team are continuing to delve into their databanks, now asking if the microbiome, epigenetics or a different gene expression pattern can clue them in to why there's such drastic variability between dieting individuals.
"Its major finding appears to be related to several facts: all participants were asked to maximise vegetables and minimise added foods with sugars, refined flour products or trans fats". Go for whole foods, whether that is a wheatberry salad or grass-fed beef.
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"I'm hoping that we can come up with signatures of sorts", he said.