Navalny has faced multiple legal cases over embezzlement and fraud, and was barred from running in Russia's presidential election in March.
Rallies across Russian Federation were organised for May 5, ahead of Putin's inauguration for a fourth term as president.
Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny was ordered Tuesday to spend 30 days in jail for staging an unsanctioned protest in Moscow and resisting police, charges he dismissed as unlawful.
It is estimated that across Russian Federation have detained about 1,600 people.
Judge Dmitry Gordeyev of Moscow's Tverskoi district court found Navalny guilty of arranging the "unauthorised" demonstrations.
Navalny himself was grabbed by police and carried away by his arms and legs shortly after appearing in Moscow's packed Pushkin square.
The court then launched into a second trial on a separate charge - refusing to comply with a police order - which carries a maximum sentence of 15 days.
The vocal Putin foe was released hours later but was ordered not to leave Moscow while the cases against him were pending. He could face up to 15 days in jail for that administrative violation.
"I hope this decision helps an enormous number of people who were subjected to this dumb, pointless, corrupt ban", Navalny wrote in a blog post reacting to the decision.