Experts say its not surprising because children take more antibiotics than any other group. This is the first time that these medicines have been linked to this condition.
To explain this, the study does not conclude that taking the antibiotics gets children into the risk of kidney stones but it is the interaction that happens between the antibiotics, urinary, and the Gut Microbiome. "So if they were prescribed at, say, 15 years of age, the risk was much higher than if it was prescribed later in life", said Dr. Tasian. According to the researchers, kidney stones were previously rare in children.
Dr. Tasian's findings will appear in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN). Antibiotics, prescribed more often in children, may play a role in this increase. The hope is that they can conduct a broader, population-based research to equip people with a better understanding of how alterations in microbiomes affect the development of kidney stones.
Results Exposure to any of five different antibiotic classes 3-12 months before index date was associated with nephrolithiasis.
Tasian said, the study team has been dealing with the risk-beneficial relationship and are looking forward to ensuring that the antibiotics are prescribed without increasing the side effects on the health.
"The overall prevalence of kidney stones has risen by 70 percent over the past 30 years, with particularly sharp increases among adolescents and young women", said Gregory E. Tasian, a pediatric urologist at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and leader of the study. The drugs ranged from broad-spectrum penicillins, which increased the risk by 27 percent, to sulfa drugs, which were associated with more than double the risk. Young people also seemed to be most susceptible to developing kidney stones after taking these medications, they add.
Scientist are already aware that antibiotics alter the composition of the human microbiome, or the community of microorganisms in the body.
He says the theory is that antibiotics disrupt healthy bacteria in the intestinal or urinary tract which then leads to the formation of kidney stones. Just because children are prescribed more of them as compared to adults, researchers suggest that the clinicians need to be more honest and mindful while prescribing medication especially when they are dealing with young patients.