Lord's Test, a crucial one for India in the series, started on a bad note for the visitors when the dry conditions of Lord's went under a makeover after the first day was washed out due to rain.
It was the sixth time that Anderson has produced a five wicket haul at Lord's and he now has 99 Test wickets at the famous London venue.
England Cricket team replaced first test hero Ben Stokes with Chris Woakes and just like the former did in the first test, Woakes added to Indian cricket team's misery on the second evening of the second Test at Lord's as he dismissed the captain, Virat Kohli, leaving India at 49 for four at the end of 22 overs.
Anderson removed opening pair Murali Vijay (0) and Lokesh Rahul (8) before Pujara was sold short by his skipper in the ninth over as India fell to 15-3.
But the very next delivery saw Kohli edge a Woakes outswinger and Buttler made no mistake on this occasion.
Cheteshwar Pujara (1 off 25 balls) left a lot of deliveries but was once again run out trying a quick single with his skipper Kohli backtracking after initially responding to a call.
England bowled India all out for 107 in its first innings on a rain-interrupted second day.
"I would be so disappointed if I had messed up today because they were ideal conditions to bowl in".
Anderson, who had generated movement off the seam as well as an impressive amount through the air, finished off the Indians - and secured his five wicket performance - by removing Ishant Sharma.
"When we bowl like that we would bowl most teams out in the world, we were that good".
Nothing doing: Rain clouds hang above the pitch at Lord's. We hardly bowled any bad balls, we didn't give them much to hit, and when you build pressure like that all day, no matter who you are, it is hard.
Left-arm spinner Kuldeep Yadav was brought in for seamer Umesh Yadav, joining Ashwin in the slow bowling department.
England had stumbled to 89-4 in reply to India's first- innings 107, but Bairstow played confidently and was unbeaten on 62 at the interval while the returning Woakes (55 not out) notched up his fifth test fifty as the hosts reached 230-5.