Tory Brexiteer Andrew Bridgen said: "The Conservative Parliamentary Party is such a broad church that some of my colleagues appear to be no longer in the church".
Parliament has already voted against leaving the European Union without an agreement on divorce terms, but there is no easy way for lawmakers to stop a government that is determined to carrying out Brexit without a deal.
The proposal was put forward after two of the candidates in the running to be the next Prime Minister, Dominic Raab and Esther McVey, both suggesting they would prorogue Parliament to stop MPs blocking leaving the European Union without a deal.
Labour introduced the motion with cross-party support with the goal of avoiding a no-deal Brexit.
A cross-party attempt to take over control of the Commons in a bid to block a future Tory leader from suspending Parliament and forcing through a no-deal Brexit has failed in Parliament.
In the Commons, the cross-party motion which would have enabled MPs to take control of the business of the House on June 25 was defeated by 309 to 298 - a majority of 11.
The SNP, the Liberal Democrats, the Greens, Plaid Cymru, and Tory MP Sir Oliver Letwin were all signatories to the bill. Mr Corbyn could be heard shouting across the chamber: "You won't be cheering in September!"
It comes a day after top United Kingdom business groups launched a stinging attack on politicians for talking up a no-deal Brexit, warning it is already causing job losses.
He said Labour would continue to work to find parliamentary mechanisms to ensure whoever succeeds Theresa May could not simply leave with no-deal in the autumn.
In the debate preceding the vote, Starmer claimed that MPs had been forced to act due to declared intentions by Tory leadership candidates such as Boris Johnson and Dominic Raab to prorogue parliament. Had the motion been passed, it would also have had a major impact on the Conservative leadership race, wiping out the favored policy of some candidates, but as things stand, the prospect of a no-deal Brexit is now a lot more realistic.
Fear within the ranks of the Conservative Party has only been exasperated following the Peterborough by election last week, where a split vote between Nigel Farage's Brexit Party and the Conservatives saw a Labour victory in the leave stronghold.