It was meant to help Catholic teachers, parents, students and clergy address the "educational crisis" in the field of teaching sexuality.
It also says transportable sexual identities are "on the entire essentially based on nothing more than a pressured theory of freedom in the realm of feelings and wants".
The document insisted that modern gender ideology and the idea that one chooses or discovers his or her gender go against nature by arguing that "the only thing that matters in personal relationships is the affection between the individuals involved, irrespective of sexual difference or procreation, which would be seen as irrelevant in the formation of families".
The New Ways Ministry, a group which addresses issues dividing LGBT Catholics and the Church, said in a statement by executive director Francis DeBernardo that the "only truth that the document reveals is that the Vatican remains ill-equipped to discuss gender and sexuality in the modern world".
The Congregation for Catholic Education has released a long document titled Male and Female He Created Them: Towards a path of dialogue on the question of gender theory in education.
On the document also calling for listening and dialogue, Ms Philips said there is a contradiction there, as on one hand it says we should listen, but also says that gender theory is wrong.
It is necessary, the document says, to rebuild an "alliance" between family, schools, and society, which can "produce educational programmes on affectivity and sexuality that respect each person's own stage of maturity regarding these areas and at the same time promote respect for the body of the other person".
"The misinformation the document contains will cause families to reject their children, and it will increase alienation of LGBT people from the Church", he said.
Reverend James Martin, a Jesuit priest and author of "Building a Bridge", which looks at the Catholic Church's relationship with the LGBT community, said in a tweet that the Vatican paper "rightly calls for "dialogue" and 'listening, ' but sets aside the real-life experiences of LGBT people".
And while the Catholic Church has traditionally had conservative ideas on gender and sexuality, in 2016 Pope Francis said the church owed LGBT people an apology for historically condemning homosexuality.
"It is from [their] sex that the human person receives the characteristics which, on the biological, psychological and spiritual levels, make that person a man or a woman".